Muscle Tuning™ Grows on the Shoulders of Leading Edge Studies

Links below lead to various studies that support the scientific basis of Muscle Tuning™.

 "Muscle Testing"

Muscle testing originated as a way for orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists to evaluate muscle strength on a 1-to-3 scale. It evolved to grading responses from 1-to-5 on the 'Oxford Scale'. This approach is known as Manual Muscle Testing.

Variations such as muscle response testing emerged in relation to assessing communication between the nervous system, the meridian system and muscles. This is a 'lighter' style of testing. Facilitators of this type of testing have been called Specialized Kinesiologists. Canadians have instead adopted the term 'Bioenergetic Wellness Facilitators' to distinguish themselves from university-trained Kinesiologists.

Those who utilize muscle response testing as a tool to assess the body’s nervous system and subtle-energy flows believe that this tool helps them support wellness.

When properly applied it gives instantly observable bio-feedback indicating the quality of the electrical signals between brain and body.

In the hands of individuals who are well trained, muscle testing assists them in identifying and correcting energetic imbalances for their clients. It is considered a wholistic approach.

See the following links for published articles and studies:

The effects of a Touch for Health energy balance on muscle strength and ratio

This study showcases shifts in strength ratios between opposing muscles, signaling enhanced joint injury prevention

School of Physical Education and Athletics, Lakehead University, Ontario, Canada,1991

By Heather A. Armstrong (Phillips)

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The phenomenon of indicator muscle change

How transient loss of isometric muscle strength is used  as a biofeedback tool. This was examined in a blind and double blind setting

Southern Cross University, 1997

By Anna E. Rolfes

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ICAK Applied Kinesiology collected papers structured abstracts

A collection of information, some of which is pertinent to muscle response testing practiced by non-chiropractors. Review of basic science and research that has been conducted on MMT since 1915

International College of Applied Kinesiology - USA Research, 1996 - 2006

Edited by Scott Cuthbert, D.C.

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Reliability and Validity of Manual Muscle Testing: a literature review

The aim of this report is to provide an historical overview, literature review, description, synthesis and critique of the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal and nervous system.

Chiropractic & Osteopathy, 2007

By Scott C. Cuthbert DC and George J. Goodheart Jr. DC

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Back pain study

Professional Kinesiology Practice for Chronic Low Back Pain: Single-Blind, Randomised Controlled Pilot Study

Complementary and Integrative Medicine Research, Primary Medical Care, University of Southampton, UK, 2013

By Susan Eardley, Sarah Brien, Paul Little, Philip Prescott, George Lewith

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Developing the Evidence for Kinesiology-Style Manual Muscle Testing

To estimate the accuracy of using kMMT to distinguish true statements from false statements, compared to using grip strength and guessing. 

University of Oxford; 2013

By Anne M Jensen1 DC ICSSD MSc DPhil Candidate • Richard J Stevens MSc PhD • Amanda J Burls MBBS MSc FFPH 

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The effectiveness of PKP Kinesiology in reducing stress, anxiety and depression

Detailed research study

By Diane Poole, 2014

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Estimating the prevalence of use of kinesiology-style manual muscle testing

Establishes the widespread use of kMMT. 

Elsevier; Advances in Integrative Medicine, 2015

By Anne Jensen

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Estimating the prevalence of use of kinesiology-style manual muscle testing

kMMT has been estimated to be used by over 1 million people worldwide

University of Oxford: Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, UK; Department of Continuing Professional Education; 2015

By Anne Jensen

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Estimating the accuracy of muscle response testing

Two randomised-order blinded studies

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017

by Anne M. Jensen

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Emerging from the Mystical - Rethinking Muscle Response Testing as an Ideomotor Effect


This document explores Muscle Response Testing (MRT), a widely used assessment tool in alternative healthcare, focusing on its validity and potential reliance on the ideomotor effect.

Energy Psychology 10:2 • November 2018

By Anne Jensen MSc, DC, DPhil

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The Impact of Using Emotionally Arousing Stimuli on Muscle Response Testing Accuracy 

This study investigates the impact of emotionally arousing stimuli on the accuracy of Muscle Response Testing (MRT).

Karger - Alternative Medicine Research, 2019

By Anne Jensen, Richard J. Stevens, Amanda J. Burls

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From our mentor, Dr. Charles T. Krebs

Developer of the Learning Enhancement Acupressure Program (LEAP) derived from his deep neurological understanding of the body and energetic principles. A humble man with four degrees and a deep sense of humour.

Dr. Charles T. Krebs YouTube Playlist

Dr. Charles T. Krebs
A Revolutionary Way of Thinking

Dr. Charles T. Krebs  Energetic Kinesiology - Principles and Practice